Watership Down (film)
|Directed by||Martin Rosen |
John Hubley (uncredited)
|Produced by||Martin Rosen|
|Screenplay by||Martin Rosen|
|Based on||Watership Down by |
|Narrated by||Michael Hordern|
|Starring||John Hurt |
Michael Graham Cox
|Music by||Angela Morley |
|Editing by||Terry Rawlings|
|Distributed by||Cinema International Corporation (UK) |
Avco Embassy Pictures (US)
|Release date(s)|| |
|Running time||92 minutes|
Watership Down is a 1978 British animated adventure drama film written, produced and directed by Martin Rosen and based on the book of the same name by Richard Adams. It was financed by a consortium of British financial institutions. Originally released on 19 October 1978, the film was an immediate success and it became the sixth most popular film of 1979 at the British box office.
It featured the voices of John Hurt, Richard Briers, Harry Andrews, Simon Cadell, Nigel Hawthorne and Roy Kinnear, among others, and was the last film appearance of Zero Mostel, as the voice of Kehaar the gull.
Art Garfunkel's British No. 1 hit, "Bright Eyes", which was written by the British singer and songwriter Mike Batt, was also included. The musical score was by Angela Morley and Malcolm Williamson.
According to Lapine culture and mythology, the world was created by the god Frith, who represents the Sun. All animals lived harmoniously, but the rabbits eventually multiplied and overwhelmed the world. Frith warned the rabbit prince El-ahrairah to control his people, but was scoffed at. In retaliation, Frith gave all others abilities to kill rabbits. Frith also gave the rabbits speed and cunning; many would seek to kill them, but the rabbits could survive by their wits and quickness.
In the present, in the English countryside of Sandleford, Fiver, a rabbit seer has an apocalyptic vision and goes with his older brother Hazel to beg the chief to have the warren evacuated, but they are dismissed and attempt to make an exodus themselves. The group meets resistance from the warren's police force called the Owsla, but eight manage to fight and escape, including Fiver, Hazel, Bigwig, Blackberry, Pipkin, Dandelion, Silver and Violet. They travel through the dangerous woods and make it to a bean field to rest. In the morning, Violet is killed by a hawk, leaving the group without a female.
After several dangerous situations, they meet the rabbit Cowslip, who invites them to his warren. They are grateful, but Fiver senses something bizarre and leaves. As Bigwig follows, he is caught in a snare trap. Fiver attempts to get help from their hosts, but is ignored. Bigwig is freed after nearly dying. The warren is fed by a farmer who snares rabbits in return for his food and protection from predators.
The rabbits discover Nuthanger farm, which contains a hutch of female rabbits, necessary for a new warren. However, they do not manage to free them, on account of the territorial farm animals. They find the injured Owsla captain Holly, who recounts the destruction of Sandleford by humans. Fiver leads the group to the hill he envisioned, Watership Down, where the rabbits settle.
They settle in, developing their own warren, with Hazel as chief. They befriend an acerbic injured seagull, Kehaar, who offers to survey the local area for does. The rabbits return to Nuthanger to free the does, but Hazel is shot by a farmhand and presumed dead. Fiver has a vision and follows the apparition of the Black Rabbit of Inle to his injured brother. Kehaar returns and while removing buckshot pellets from Hazel's leg, reports of Efrafa, a large warren with many females. Holly, who encountered Efrafa, begs them not to go there, describing it as a totalitarian state. Hazel feels they have no choice but to go there. Bigwig infiltrates the colony and becomes an Owsla officer by the vicious chief, General Woundwort. Bigwig recruits several potential escapees to his cause, including Hyzenthlay, a rebellious doe and Blackavar, a scarred attempted escapee. They flee, with Woundwort and the Efrafans in pursuit.
Efrafan trackers discover their trail and follow them to Watership Down. Hazel offers and alliance with Woundwort, who dismisses Hazel, telling him to have Bigwig surrender. The Watership rabbits barracade their warren and are besieged by the Efrafans. Fiver slips into a trance, in which he envisions a dog loose in the woods. His moans inspire Hazel to free the dog from Nuthanger and lead him to the warren to intervene. He escapes with Blackberry, Dandelion and Hyzenthlay.
Hazel prays to Frith, offering his life for the those in the warren, a bargain Frith cannot accept, as the outcome must be a natural part of life. Hazel frees the dog while his companions bait it into following them to Watership Down. When the Efrafans break through the warren's defenses, Woundwort leads the attack. Blackavar confronts Woundwort, but is overpowered and killed. Bigwig ambushes Woundwort and they fight to exhaustion. The dog arrives and kills the Efrafans. Hearing the commotion, Woundwort abandons Bigwig and confronts the dog. No trace of Woundwort is found, leaving his fate ambiguous.
Years later, the warren is thriving. An elderly Hazel is visited by the Black Rabbit, who invites him to join his Owsla, assuring him of Watership Down's perpetual safety. Reassured, Hazel accepts and dies. Hazel's spirit follows the Black Rabbit through the woodland and trees towards the Sun, which metamorphoses into Frith and the afterlife.
This was the first film to feature both John Hurt and Nigel Hawthorne. Both later starred together in two other animated features, The Plague Dogs (which was also based on a Richard Adams book), and The Black Cauldron. Hurt and Richard Briers (who voiced Hazel and Fiver, respectively, in the film) later returned to voice General Woundwort and the new character, Captain Broom, respectively in the 1999 TV series remake.
|Bigwig||Michael Graham Cox||Rabbit|
|Captain Holly||John Bennett||Rabbit|
|Chief Rabbit||Ralph Richardson||Rabbit|
|Kehaar||Zero Mostel||Black-headed Gull|
|General Woundwort||Harry Andrews||Rabbit|
|Lord Frith||Michael Hordern||Deity|
|Black Rabbit||Joss Ackland||Deity|
The film was originally to be directed by John Hubley, who died in 1977. His work can still be found in the film, most notably in the "fable" scene. He was replaced by the film's producer Martin Rosen, his directorial debut.
After the genesis story rendered in a narrated simple cartoon fashion, the animation style changes to a detailed, naturalist one, with concessions to render the animals anthropomorphic only to suggest they have human voices and minds, some facial expressions for emotion and paw gestures. The animation backgrounds are watercolours. Only one of the predators, the farm cat, Tab, is given a few lines, the rest remaining mute.
The backgrounds and locations, especially Efrafa and the nearby railway, are based to the diagrams and maps in Richard Adams's book. Most of the locations in this movie either exist or were based on real spots in Hampshire and surrounding areas.
Although the film was fairly faithful to the novel, several changes were made to the storyline, mainly to decrease overdetailed complexity and improve pace and flow of the plot. In addition, the order in which some events occur is re-arranged. Unlike many animated features, the film faithfully emulated the dark and violent sophistication of the book. As a result, many reviewers took to warning parents that children might find the content disturbing.
This attitude extended to when the animated Watership Down TV series was marketed with the producers making an effort to reassure parents that the violence was softened and that the main characters would not be permanently harmed in their adventures.
Some marketers in the U.S. were also worried that the main promotional poster (see above) appeared too dark and might scare some children. The poster is actually showing Bigwig in a snare (his distinctive fur is clearly visible), and the image on the poster does not appear in the film, which has a far bloodier depiction of the scene.
The musical score was by Angela Morley and Malcolm Williamson, Morley replacing Williamson after the composer had fallen behind and only composed the prelude and main title theme in sketch form. A list of the musical cues for the film can be found on the composer's website, which also gives information about the different composers working on the project.
The soundtrack included Art Garfunkel's British No. 1 hit, "Bright Eyes", which was written by the British singer and songwriter Mike Batt (although in a different arrangement from the one released as a single). Batt also wrote other songs for the film which were not used. The composer recorded three songs with vocals by Garfunkel, but only "Bright Eyes" made it to the film. The song "When You're Losing Your Way in the Rain" has a very similar feeling and arrangement, and was recorded by the former Zombies vocalist Colin Blunstone in 1979. Garfunkel's version was heard years later, on the TV series soundtrack released in 2000. The song, like many others which appeared on the TV soundtrack, was never used in the show.
Another song, "Watership Down", was written by Gerry Beckley of America for use as the theme song. It was never used, but the band recorded it for their 1976 album, Hideaway. An alternative mix can be found on the box set Highway.
The film has received a generally positive critical reception, with an 81% 'Fresh' rating on Rotten Tomatoes, and a rating of 67% from select critics. The film was nominated for Hugo Award for Best Dramatic Presentation in 1979. In 2004, the magazine Total Film named Watership Down the 47th greatest British film of all time and it was also ranked 15th in the "100 Greatest Tearjerkers".
A picture book of the animated film was also produced, titled The Watership Down Film Picture Book. Two editions of the book were published, one a hard-cover, the other a reinforced cloth-bound edition. The contents include stills from the film linked with a combination of narration and extracts from the script, as well as a preface written by Richard Adams and a foreword written by Martin Rosen.
- Watership Down (region 1, USA, currently out of print) (2002)
- Watership Down 25th Anniversary Edition (region 4, Australia) (2003) (Big Sky Video)
- Watership Down (Australia, 2008, Umbrella Entertainment)
- Watership Down Deluxe Edition (region 1, USA) (7 October 2008)
- Watership Down 2-Disc Deluxe Edition (2011)
Watership Down was scheduled to be released to Blu-ray in the UK in October of 2010 but that was canceled. The release went ahead in Germany under the name Unten am Fluss and can be ordered online. The UK release has been rescheduled to some time in 2012 but it is unknown whether the release will go ahead and whether the film will be uncropped.
- UK: Cinema International Corporation
- Australia: CIC Australia
- US: Avco Embassy Pictures
- Netherlands: Concorde Film
- Finland: Suomi-Filmi
- UK: Guild Home Video (1987)/PolyGram Video (1990s)
- USA/internationally: Warner Home Video (1990–present)
- Finland: Finn Innovation Products (1995) / Future Film Ltd (2005)
- Australia: CIC Video (1980s-1999)/Roadshow Home Video (1999–2000)/Blue Sky Video (2005)
The film is rated G in New Zealand and has also been dubbed in Japanese.
- "Watership Down". Toonhound. class="reference-accessdate">. Retrieved 2006-12-18.
- Watership Down at angelamorley.com
- Cue sheet at angelamorley.com
- Watership Down at the Internet Movie Database
- Watership Down at AllRovi
- Watership Down at Rotten Tomatoes
- Watership Down at the British Film Institute's Screenonline
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